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Cannabis in Canada: References Pages 41-60

PAGE 41 - Legalization movement begins. LSD-POT Pavilion.

• six months for possession
Article: Teenager Jailed On Narcotics Charge, The Ottawa Journal, April 3, 1967

• a secret society
Article: Seek Marijuana Advancement, The Brandon Sun, February 8, 1965

• Ottawa's first smoke-in
Article: Smoke-In Quiet Affair, Canadian Press, The Ottawa Journal, September 5, 1967

• rally on Parliament Hill
Article: Hash on Hill, Suds on Mall as Hippies Protest Arrests, by Jeff Carruthers, The Ottawa Journal, Sept 16 1968

• Jackson Seed
Article: Marijuana Charge Dismissed in Court, The Ottawa Journal, Nov 25, 1967

• "depravity of the individual"
Article: Police Chiefs Opposed to Homosexuality Law Easing, Canadian Press,The Ottawa Journal, Sept 7 1968,

• The LSD-POT Pavilion
Article: Drugs, communications covered, The Montreal Gazette, Jul 12, 1969,2214672

• The LSD-POT Pavilion
Book: Not this Time, by Marcel Martel, p.101, University of Toronto Press, 2006

• burglars broke into pavilion
Article: Loot Pot Pavilion, Canadian Press, The Ottawa Journal, July 28 1969

PAGE 42 - Rochdale College. Cannabis smuggler Rosie Rowbotham.

• famous Woodstock festival
Wikipedia: Woodstock

• Rochdale College
Website: Rochdale College Book, by Wolf Sullivan, 2014

• Rochdale College
Article: Remembering Rochdale College, Toronto’s hippie heart, by Kelli Korducki, Globe and Mail, Nov 8 2013

• Rochdale College
Audio: Rochdale College Organized Anarchy, CBC Radio, Concern, Peter Meggs, Jan 8 1969

• Rochdale College
Video: Rochdale: The hippie experiment explodes, Joe Coté, CBC Digital Archives, Aug 8 1977

• Rosie Rowbotham:
Article: Rosie Rowbotham, Canada’s longest serving marijuana prisoner, by Thomas Mann, Cannabis Culture, May 1, 1998

• Rosie Rowbotham:
Article: Weed-War Survivor Sums It Up Simply: Drugs Won, by Mitch Potter, Toronto Star, Oct 15 2000

• Rosie Rowbotham:
Article: Dealer tells tale of riches, The Ottawa Journal, May 3 1977

• Rosie Rowbotham:
Article: Jury acquits man after deliberating for 14 hours, Canadian press, The Ottawa Journal, May 12 1977

• Norman Mailer
Article: Newsmakers, The Brandon Sun, Apr 20, 1977

• Neil Young
Book: Neil Young Nation, by Kevin Chong, Greystone Books, 2005

• chart: marijuana convictions per year:
Paper: Drug Control Laws in Canada, by Kos-Rabcewicz-Zubkowski, in The John Marshall Law Review, Vol 9, Issue 1, Article 6, p.111, Fall 1975

• 90% of convictions for possession
Paper: The Twentieth Century Marihuana Phenomenon in Canada, by Clayton James Mosher, p.191, Thesis, School of Criminology, Simon Fraser University, 1986

• 90% of convictions for possession
Paper: A Statistical Review of Arrest, Conviction and Sentencing Patterns, Department of National Health and Welfare, January 1979

PAGE 43 - LeDain Commission recommends decriminalization.

• 90% of all drug convictions
Paper: Cannabis Control Policy, Chapter 2, Health Protection Branch, January 1979

• LeDain Commission
Report: The Report of the Canadian Government Commission of Inquiry into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs, 1972

• LeDain Commission
Transcript: John Lennon's Drug Testimony, The Private Hearing of John Lennon, The Le Dain Commission of Inquiry into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs, December 22, 1969

• LeDain Commission
Article: 3-way plan to cut drug use penalties?, Canadian Press, The Ottawa Journal, March 27 1972,

• LeDain Commission
Video: Le Dain tables final report recommending decriminalization, CBC Television News, CBC Digital Archive, June 1 1972

• LeDain Commission
Audio: Le Dain report on drugs divides cabinet, Sunday Magazine, CBC Digital Archives, June 21, 1970

• $4 million
Book: The Real Dope, by Edgar-André Montigny, p.225, University of Toronto Press, 2011

PAGE 44 - Many cannabis studies. Results ignored.

• Ralph Miller led a team, a 2013 interview
Article, Marijuana studies under Trudeau shelved before results analyzed, by Diana Zlomislic, The Star, April 8 2013

• Another cannabis study, "I feel ripped off"
Article: Local woman took part in weird 1972 experiment in marijuana use, Waterloo Region Record, April 9 2013

• weave colourful belts
Article: Belts for Sale, Canadian Press, The Ottawa Journal, Jan 8 1974

• data not analyzed
Article: Results from Toronto marijuana study in 1972 still not public, by Diana Zlomislic, The Star, April 8 2013

Video: Secret Toronto Marijuana Experiment Exposed, The Mernahuana Zone, Matt Mernagh interview with Doreen Brown, March 24 2015

PAGE 45 - Ernest Small. Definition of hemp vs marijuana.

• The Species problem in Cannabis
Book: The Species Problem in Cannabis, Ernest Small, Corpus, 1979

• Central Experimentation Farm
Article: A pot farm thriving in central Ottawa, by Peter Calamai, Montreal Gazette, p.7, Mar 2 1971,257050

• called it "Hash Lane"
Article: Taking a Trip Down Hash Lane, by Tom Spears, Ottawa Citizen, May 11 2013

• 0.3% THC level
Website: Frequently Asked Questions, Hemp, Health Canada, 2016

• 0.3% THC level
Website: Non-THC Hemp-seed, Hemp Cyberfarm,

• 0.3% THC level
Article: Industrial Hemp, Colorado Department of Agriculture

PAGE 46 - 1971 Gastown Smoke-In becomes police riot.

• Gastown Police Riot
Article: 1971 Gastown Riot, Canada's Human Rights History,

• Gastown Police Riot
Video: Gastown riots over Vancouver Smoke-in, CBC Digital Archives, Aug 15 1971

• Gastown Police Riot
Article: And the Pigs went Mad!, by David Malmo-Levine and Dana Larsen, Cannabis Culture, May 1 1996

• 1971 smoke-in
Wikipedia: Gastown Riots

• Operation Dustpan
Book: Debating Dissent, by Lara Campbell et al., p.123, University of Toronto Press, 2012

• "scum community" and "parasites"
Article: Death of Tom Terrific recalls rough times in late 60s, by Allen Garr, Vancouver Courier, February 9, 2012

• Grasstown
Image: Advertisement for Grasstown Smoke-In & Street Jamboree, Georgia Straight, 1971!/fileImage/httpImage/image.png_gen/derivatives/landscape_490/.png

• "we fight fires, not people"
Article: Tom Terrific and the Yippies, Forbidden Vancouver, April 23 2012

• four police on horseback
Book: Canada's Rights Revolution 1937-82, by Dominique Clément, p.76, UBC Press, Jan 1 2009

• newly-issued batons
Article: Aldermen seek probe of wild Gastown clash Vancouver Sun, Aug. 9, 1971.

PAGE 47 - Vancouver Police Riot against Grasstown cannabis rally.

• Gastown Riot photos
Photos: The 1971 Gastown riot, Glenn Baglo, Vancouver Sun, May 25 2010

• no badge numbers
Article: And the Pigs went Mad!, by David Malmo-Levine and Dana Larsen, Cannabis Culture, May 1 1996

• mercilessly beat protestors
Article: This Day in Vancouver, August 7th, The Dependent, Aug 7 2012

• local shopkeepers
Article: This day in history, Aug 7, 1971, by John Mackie, Vancouver Sun, Aug 7 2012

• a judicial inquiry
Article: 1971 Gastown Riot, Canada's Human Rights History,

• football helmets and broomsticks
Article: Helmets, Broomstick Men & the Police Riot of ‘71, by Father Theo, Father Theo's Blog, January 5, 2010‘71/

• Richard Brown, eyewitness
Video: 'Grass'Town Riots 1971

PAGE 48 - Domestic cultivation. First cannabis grow books.

• an estimated 30-50,000
Article: The re-writing of history, by Luke Stewart, University of Waterloo,

• smoke the leaves
Article: Why is Cannabis Now So Different from 1970s Cannabis?, by Anna Wilcox,,

• smoke the leaves
Book: The 1970s, by Kelly Sagert, p.68, Greenwood Publishing, 2007

• Ed Rosenthal
Website: Ed Rosenthal

• Mel Frank
Website: Mel Frank

• Grow Yer Own Stone
Book: Grow Yer Own Stone, by Dr Alexander Sumach, Better Red Graphics, 1973

• Interview with Alexander Sumach
Audio: The Grass is Greener, interview with Alexander Sumach, Ryerson, 1974

• seeds they had picked out
Article: Origins of the Species, by Robert Clarke, Cannabis Culture, April 13 2006

• from new companies
Article: Sensi Seeds Cannabis Breeding History Part One,

• Sacred Seeds, Super Sativa Seed Club:

• Super Sativa Seed Club:

• swapping cuttings
Article: Origins of the Species, by Robert Connell Clarke, Cannabis Culture Magazine, issue 60, 2006

PAGE 49 - Imported cannabis and hash varieties.

• different varieties of cannabis, $30 to $120 an ounce
Article: The Strains of Yesteryear, by DJ Short, Cannabis Culture, June 28 2005

• Great Books of Hashish
Website: Great Books of Hashish

• Laurence Cherniak
Website: Laurence Cherniak

• Canada's first head shop
Video: Yorkville head shop caters to needs of hippies, CBC Digital Archives, April 18 1967

PAGE 50 - Tommy Chong's first joint, early career.

• the Calgary Shades:
Article: Terminal City Confidential, by Susanne Tabata, Beatroute, April 7 2014

• asked to leave town
Article: Counter-culture icon Tommy Chong returns to Calgary, by Kenna Burima, Ffwd Weekly, Dec 3 2009

• "That one joint", booking Ike & Tina Turner, The Elegant Parlour, put strippers into sketches
Article: Tommy Chong's Vancouver, by Tommy Chong, Cannabis Culture, August 24 2008

• Bobby Taylor and the Vancouvers
Article: Bobby Taylor and the Vancouver,

• Does Your Mama Know About Me
Audio: Does Your Mama Know About Me, by Bobby Taylor & The Vancouvers

PAGE 51 - Cheech and Chong. Big Bambu. Up In Smoke.

• Cheech Marin, to evade the draft
Article: Cheech Marin, NNDB

• $5 more a week, acid tripping hippy Strawberry
Article: Tommy Chong's Vancouver, by Tommy Chong, Cannabis Culture, August 24 2008

• Sergeant Stadanko:
Video: Sergeant Stadanko, Cheech and Chong, Big Bambu, 1972

• Abe Snidanko
Article: Ten Intoxicating Moments in Vancouver History, By Lani Russwurm, The Tyee, Dec 21 2013

• Abe Snidanko
Website: Abe Snidanko, Past Tense Vancouver

• Big Bambu:
Wikipedia: Big Bambu

• Up In Smoke
Wikipedia: Up in Smoke

• Cheech and Chong interview
Transcript: An Evening with Cheech & Chong at Cinefamily, Aug 4, 2013

PAGE 52 - Canadian cannabis smuggler Brian O'Dea.

• Brian O'Dea
Website: Brian O'Dea

• 75 tons of cannabis, about the camaraderie
Article: How I Pulled Off a $300 Million Drug Deal, by Oscar Rickett,, July 24 2012

• National Post
Article: I can do anything an MBA can, by Charlie Gillis, National Post, Feb 19 2001

• High: Confessions of a Pot Smuggler
Book: High, By Brian O'Dea, Random House, 2006

• How to Make Money Selling Drugs
Article: How to Make Money Selling Drugs, by Lily Rothman,, June 21 2013

• Interview with Brian O'Dea
Video: TMZ 163 Canadian Cannabis Smuggler Brian O'Dea, Vapor Central

PAGE 53 - Cannabis comics. Politicians promise decriminalization.

• Harold Hedd
Article: Harold Hedd, by Steven Fox,,

• Harold Hedd
Review: The Collected Adventures of Harold Hedd, by Steven Fox,

• Rand Holmes
Article: Rand Holmes (1942-2002), by Henry Mietkiewicz, Joe Shuster Awards, 2005

• Georgia Straight:
Article: It's a Filthy, Perverted Paper, by Jesse Donaldson, The Dependent Magazine, July 13, 2010“it’s-a-filthy-perverted-paper”-a-history-of-the-georgia-straight/

• 40,020 convictions: Paper: A Statistical Review of Arrest, Conviction and Sentencing Patterns, Department of National Health and Welfare, January 1979

• not a narcotic:
Book: The Peter Pot Paper, by Peter Curran

• secret Health Canada report
Report: Cannabis Control Policy, A Discussion Paper, Health Protection Branch, Department of National Health and Welfare, January 1979

• secret Health Canada report
Article: Canadian feds suppress pro-pot report, by Reverend Damuzi, Cannabis Culture, May 1999

• Pierre Trudeau
Article: Marijuana Policy and Liberal Bad Faith, by Koby, The Maple Three, May 27, 2006

• Joe Clark
Article: Clark Supports Decriminalizing Marijuana, by Allison Dunfield, Globe and Mail, May 23 2001

PAGE 54 - Margaret Trudeau. Peter Pot Papers. NORML Canada.

• 13% arrests cannabis-related, Peter Curran
Article: Peter Pot pushing hard for eased marijuana law, The Ottawa Journal, Feb 22 1978

• 250,000 Canadians criminal records, almost half under 35
Article: 1 Out Of 4 Canadians Have Smoked Marijuana, The Ottawa Journal, July 21 1979

• files on 200,000 cannabis users
Article: Lid opens on Secret Drug Files, The Ottawa Journal, Dec 19 1978

• Margaret Trudeau
Website: Margaret Trudeau,

• released her memoirs
Article: Maggie Trudeau's Confessions Are Juicy Gossip, by Andrea Chambers, April 9 1979,,20073356,00.html

• "but to sniff me"
Book: Beyond Reason, by Margaret Trudeau, Paddington Press, 1979

• Peter Pot Paper:
Book: The Peter Pot Paper, by Peter Curran

• first Cannabis Day
Article: The Origin of Cannabis Day, by David Malmo-Levine, Cannabis Culture, June 27, 2012

• attracted 2000 people
Article: Some tokin, jokin, little provokin, by Ron Newton, Edmonton Journal, July 3 1978

• attracted 2000 people
Article: Police were ready for trouble, by Mike Harrop, Edmonton Journal, July 3 1978

• 5000 attendees, CALM
Article: Smoke Signals, Editorial, Medicine Hat News, June 10 1981

• Easter Be-Ins
Article: Vancouver Easter Be-In, by Dave Watson, Georgia Straight, May 8, 1997

• Easter Be-Ins
Article: Be-In Music Festival, Voices of East Anglia, July 2012

• Jerry Kruz
Article: Counter-Culture rock revisited, BC Book Look, October 17 2014

• NORML formed
Article: Marijuana Forum Set, The Chilliwack Progress, Sept 21 1977

• held press conferences
Article: Aid economy, end reefer madness, Ottawa Journal, Jan 18 1978

• lobbied politicians
Article: Industrial use of marijuana urged, Ottawa Journal, Nov 20 1978

• put on concerts
Notice: A Reggae Bash, The Ottawa Journal, July 12 1979

• put on concerts, Langille ran as a candidate
Article: Joint benefit dance staged for pot decriminalization, by Evelyn Erskine, Jan 11 1980

• put on concerts
Article: Gone to pot, Ottawa Journal, Feb 14 1979

• Sing-song birdseed
Article: Marijuana is strictly for the birds, Brandon Sun, Aug 31 1977

• Sing-song birdseed
Article: Suspect birdseed put under counter, Canadian press, Brandon Sun, Sept 1 1977

• Sing-song birdseed
Article: Canaries singing high notes?, by Paula McLaughlin, Ottawa Journal, Sept 2 1977

• Sing-song birdseed: Article: Police tests confirm marijuana in birdseed, Canadian Press, Brandon Sun, Sept 2 1977

• charged with trafficking
Article: Pro-drug head busted, Ottawa Journal, Mar 31 1980

• a suspended sentence
Article: No jail for pot group leader, The Montreal Gazette, Nov 21 1980,131824

PAGE 55 - Ronald Reagan. Just Say No. Drug war intensifies.

• promise to decriminalize
Article: The Great Canadian Marijuana Debate Goes On and On, by Lloyd Duhaime, Law Mag, April 19, 2012

• Nancy Reagan
Video: Nancy Reagan, CNN, September 1986

• "take away the dream"
Speech: Just Say No, Nancy Reagan, Address to the Nation, CNN, September 14, 1986

• Just Say No
Article: Just Say No to 40 Years of Failed Policy, by Gravlax,, June 17 2011

• "the most dangerous drug"
Book: Reefer Madness, by Eric Schlosser, p.24, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2004

• saw the budget skyrocket
Book: Crime Policy in America, by Shahid Shahidullah, p.99, University Press of America, 2008

• mandatory minimum jail sentences
Wikipedia: Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986

• mandatory minimum jail sentences
Reagan's Drug War Legacy, by Jeralyn Merritt, AlterNet, June 18 2004's_drug_war_legacy

• taken to foreign soil, South America
Paper: Perilous Panacea, The Military In The Drug War, by Ted Carpenter and R. Rouse,, Feb 15 1990

• South America
Cops, Soldiers, and Diplomats, by Tony Payan, p.107, Lexington Books, 2007

• Panama
Wikipedia: United States invasion of Panama

• US-funded troops
Article: Paramilitaries, Drug Trafficking and US Policy in Colombia, by Samia Montalvo, Dollars and Sense magazine, July 2000

• killed farmers
Article: In its mad and hopeless war on cocaine the US has destroyed the lives of millions of innocent farmers in Colombia, by Tessie Castillo, AlterNet, July 9 2012,_the_us_has_destroyed_the_lives_of_millions_of_innocent_farmers_in_colombia

• killed farmers
Article: Terrorism with a Human Face, The History of America’s Death Squads, by Prof Michel Chossudovsky, Global Research, January 4 2013

• killed farmers
Article: CIA Support of Death Squads, by Ralph McGehee, RemarQ, October 9 1999

• killed farmers
Book: Cocaine, Death Squads, and the War on Terror, by Oliver Villar and Drew Cottle, Monthly Review, 2011

• supply of cocaine
Book: Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America, by Peter Dale Scott and Jonathan Marshall, University of California Press, 1991

• fear of US retaliation
Article: An Analysis of Bill C-7, by Dana Larsen, Cannabis Culture, Feb 1 1995 (see statement by Bruce Rowsell).

• fear of US retaliation
Article: Canada Pot Proposal Drawing US Concern, by Rogene Fisher, May 16 2003

PAGE 56 - Reagan-Bush drug war, importing heroin and cocaine.

• Reagan-Bush administration:
Article: The CIA Drug connection under Reagan, by R.G. Price, Rational Revolution, 2003

• CIA was directly involved:
Video: Guns, Drugs and the CIA, by Andrew and Leslie Cockburn, PBS, May 17 1988

• heroin for arms pipeline:
Book: Seeds of Terror, How Drugs, Thugs, and Crime Are Reshaping the Afghan War, p.38, by Gretchen Peters, Macmillan, 2010

• heroin for arms pipeline:
Book: The Crimes of a President, by Joel Bainerman, p.79, SP Books, 1992

• heroin for arms pipeline
Article: Reagan legacy lingers in Afghanistan, Pakistan, by M B. Naqvi, Asia Times, June 15 2004

• heroin for arms pipeline
Book: Getting Away With Murder, by Richard Mahoney, p.53, Skyhorse Publishing, 2013

• heroin for arms pipeline
Book: Opium, Uncovering the Politics of the Poppy, by Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy, p.192, Harvard University Press, 2009

• cocaine for arms pipeline

• cocaine for arms pipeline
Article: How John Kerry exposed the Contra-cocaine scandal, by Robert Parry,, October 25 2004

• cocaine for arms pipeline
Book: Out of Control, The Story of the Reagan Administration's Secret War in Nicaragua, the Illegal Arms Pipeline, and the Contra Drug Connection, by Leslie Cockburn, Atlantic Monthly, 1987

• years of federal investigation
Wikipedia: Kerry Committee report

• The CIA admitted
Article: The CIA, Contras, and Drugs, by Eric Umanskyaug, Mother Jones, August 25 1998

• Gary Webb
Article: The truth in Dark Alliance, by Nick Schou, Los Angeles Times, August 18 2006

• Gary Webb
Article: Gary Webb Was Right, by Marc Levin, Huffington Post, October 24 2014

• Dark Alliance
Articles: America's crack plague has roots in Nicaragua war; Shadowy origins of crack epidemic; War on drugs has unequal impact on black Americans; by Gary Webb, Mercury News, August 1996

• Dark Alliance
Book: Dark Alliance, by Gary Webb, Seven Stories Press, 1999

• Dark Alliance
Video: Dark Alliance, Gary Webb Interview, C-Span, 1998

• director of Eli Lilly
Article: Eli Lilly, Zyprexa & the Bush Family, by Bruce Levine, Z Mag, May 2004

• More Americans were imprisoned
Book: Crime and Punishment in America, by Elliott Currie, Metropolitan Books, 2013

• More Americans were imprisoned
Wikipedia: United States incarceration rate

• surpassed every other nation
Wikipedia: List of countries by incarceration rate

• Reagan death penalty:
Article: Reagan Announces Anti-Drug Campaign, by Merrill Hartson, Associated Press, August 4 1986

• Reagan death penalty:
Article: Reagan suggests cabinet submit to drug testing, Associated Press, Reading Eagle, August 4 1986,3925845

PAGE 57 - Canada bans bongs, pro-cannabis literature.

• Brian Mulroney announced
Book: Dependent America?, by Stephen Clarkson and Matto Mildenberger, p.245, University of Toronto Press, 2011

• Brian Mulroney announced
Book: Chasing Dragons, by Kyle Grayson, p.259, University of Toronto Press, 2008

• Section 462.2
Criminal Code: 462.2 - Offence and Punishment,

• the same law prohibits
Article: Bongs and grow books banned in Canada!, by Dana Larsen, Vancouver Sun, May 16, 2013

• made no exception, over 2000 stores
Decision: Iorfida et al. v. MacIntyre et al., Ontario Court, General Division, Ellen MacDonald J., October 5, 1994

• Grow Yer Own Stone seized
Website: Grow yer own stone, Canada 1974, Independent Drug Monitor

• High Times and Grow Yer Own Stone
Article: Firefighters find marijuana plants, by Roxanne Beaubien, London Free Press, May 5 1998

• Jack Herer
Article: The hero of hemp, by Paul Rogers, Free Culture, December 2010

• Jack Herer
Video: Emperor of Hemp, Double J Films, 1999

• Captain Ed Adair
Video: Captain Ed Adair on Time 4 Hemp, Jack Herer TV, Youtube

• The Emperor Wears no Clothes
Book: The Emperor Wears No Clothes, by Jack Herer, Queen of Clubs Publishing, 1992

• Herer visited Toronto
Video: Toronto Marijuana Mardi Gras, Freedom Party Ontario, July 19 1992

• Herer visited Vancouver in 1993
Post: Eighties Cannabis Culture, by KingAmongKings, January 4 2010

PAGE 58 - NORML Canada. Anti-literature law defeated in court.

• raided the offices, NORML membership list, decision wasn't appealed, applies only in Ontario
Article: Freedom of Expression is NORML, by Chris Clay et al, Cannabis Culture, January 2 1998

• took them to court
Article: A Father Speaks Out, by Bill Carroll, NORML Canada, January 1996

• overturned the literature ban
Decision: Iorfida et al. v. MacIntyre et al., Ontario Court, General Division, Ellen MacDonald J., October 5, 1994

• rarely have problems
Article: Winnipeg head shop reopens after police raid, CBC News, May 17 2013

• harassed and raided
Article: Selling Drug Paraphernalia a Pithy Criminal Substance, by Linda McKay-Panos,, March 4 2013

• in smaller communities:
Article: RCMP tell second Prince Rupert store to take pipes, bongs off the shelf, by Martina Perry, The Northern View, June 20 2013

• in smaller communities:
Article: 30 march to support the sale of bongs at Tripping Daisy, by Rick Owen, KL Northern News, March 3 2015

PAGE 59 - Indoor growing spreads. Police "Green Teams."

• Metal Halide bulb
Wikipedia: Metal Halide Lamp

• books on growing
Search: How to grow marijuana,

• $2000 to $2500
Article: Police fear gang war over pot, by Chad Skelton, Vancouver Sun, June 10 2005

• a pound of cannabis
Report: Targeting Marihuana Growing Operations in British Columbia, by Jordan Diplock and Darryl Plecas, p.2, University of the Fraser Valley, August 2013

• specialized grow stores
Article: The rise of indoor hydroponic growing, Manix Botanix

• Sea of Green
Article: Sea of Green (SOG) Marijuana, How to Grow Marijuana

• first indoor grow room
Post: Eighties Cannabis Culture, by KingAmongKings, January 4 2010

• 1500 indoor gardens
Transcript: In Canada Marijuana Grows Like Well a Weed, by Martin Kaste, National Public Radio, July 6 2005

• didn't lay a single charge
Article: 100 Raids, No Arrests For Police Pot Squad, by Chad Skelton, Vancouver Sun, December 11 2000

• In 2005, BC municipalities
Report: Targeting Marihuana Growing Operations in British Columbia, by Jordan Diplock and Darryl Plecas, p.9, University of the Fraser Valley, August 2013

• By 2010, ten cities
Article: War on grow-ops in BC has unexpected casualties, by Robert Matas, The Glove and Mail, Jan 11 2011

PAGE 60 - Hell's Angels and Vietnamese cannabis growers.

• Hell's Angels
Article: The Hells Angels and Organized Crime, Gangsters Out,

• Hell's Angels
Article: BC's Hells Angels, Rich and Powerful, by Lori Culbert and Neal Hall, Vancouver Sun, June 10, 2005

• Hell's Angels
Article: The Hells Angels' devilish business, by Andy Serwer, Fortune, 1992

• In 1994, 325 pounds
Report: BC Bud, Growth of the Canadian Marijuana Trade, by Drug Enforcement Administration, Intelligence Division, December 2000

• In 1998, 4000 pounds, by 2004, 20,500 pounds
Article: Violent New Front in Drug War Opens on the Canadian Border, by Sarah Kershawmarch, New York Times, March 5 2005

• smuggling tunnel
Article: Drug tunnel found under Canada border, by Terry Frieden, CNN, July 22 2005

• less than 2%
Report: Canada-United States Border Drug Threat Assessment, Government of Canada and the Government of the United States, October 2004

• Vietnamese groups
Article: Why do Vietnamese grow so much dope?, by Michael Gray, 2007

• were Vietnamese growers
Article: Police fear gang war over pot, by Chad Skelton, Vancouver Sun, June 10 2005

• uncovered a network
Article: Grow-op king duped 54 homeowners, by Peter Small, The Star, May 5 2009

• sentenced to 5 years: 60-13
Article: Real estate agent jailed, fined $1M for grow-op scheme, by John Goddard, The Star, December 22 2009

• tracked down in Bucharest
Article: Grow-op suspect busted after being spotted in newspaper photo, by Peter Edwards, The Star, May 12 2011